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Dyslexia-What Are Its Types?
A lot of people are confused with the meaning of dyslexia.
What is the meaning of dyslexia?
The first meaning of dyslexia is the literal meaning since it is based on the etymology of the word itself, “Dys” means problematic or wrong then “lexia” means pertaining to letters or words. Which means, dyslexia refers to problems with words. People that are having difficulty in reading has dyslexia.
The second meaning is more wider when it comes to its use and its application. This meaning is usually used by adults with dyslexia or parents of dyslexics. In the application aspect, dyslexia refers to a number of symptom such as problems with spelling, writing and reading, poor memory, does not have physical coordination and has difficulty in hearing.
This means that the word dyslexia really depends on how it is being used.
In the year 1973, Newcombe and Marshall subdivided the word dyslexia and they describe each kind dyslexia. They started with the ideas of surface dyslexia, double deficit dyslexia and phonological dyslexia.
Here are the types of dyslexia:
A. Surface dyslexia
One symptom of surface dyslexia is when the person is having mistakes and is inconsistent with the English pronunciation. For example, the word bowl is pronounced as howl and the word pretty is pronounced as jetty
B. Phonological dyslexia
Phonological dyslexia actually refers to the failure of adapting the phonics of the English language. People find it hard to read new words if they have phonological dyslexia.
C. Double deficit dyslexia
There are people that have both kinds of dyslexia such as phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia and the term that they use for this condition is double deficit dyslexia.
D. Visual dyslexia and auditory dyslexia
Both of these types are derived from the magnocellular theory of dyslexia. In this theory, people with dyslexia are neurologically weak in their magnocellular cells that can be found in the thalamus part of brain. This area of the brain is actually the part that processes all of the auditory information and visual information.
There are studies that shows, that people with dyslexia have difficulties in processing auditory information and visual information.
This means that children that have poor visual skills but have average hearing skills can be diagnosed as visual dyslexia, and those children that have poor hearing skills but average visual skills are diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.
E. Orthographic dyslexia
Orthography is a group of letters and symbols that creates a language. The english alphabet has 26 letters, while for the Chinese and Japanese language they have thousands of different types of symbols. This means that orthographic dyslexia refers to problems in manipulating and identifying letters in spelling, writing and reading.